57) Liberté, Justice, Fraternité

Libertate, Dreptate, Frăție
Freedom, Justice, Fraternity
„Tot norodul românesc / All the Romanian people
Pre tine te proslăvesc: / We praise thee:
Troiţă de o fiinţă, / Holy Trinity,
Trămite-mi ajutorinţă / Send me help
Cu puterea ta cea mare / With your big power
Şi cu braţul tău cel tare, / And with thy mighty arm,
Nădejde de dreptate / Hope for the justice
Acum să am şi eu parte. / I may share now."
1821, Ghenarie 5 / 1821 January 5
Flag of the Revolution of Tudor Vladimirescu: an uprising in Wallachia (south region of Romania)
against Ottoman rule, revolt which took place during the year 1821

Costache Petrescu (1829-1910): Romanian revolutionaries of 1848
The Wallachian Revolution of 1848 was a Romanian liberal and nationalist uprising. Part of the Revolutions of 1848, and closely connected with the unsuccessful revolt in the Principality of Moldavia, it sought to overturn the administration imposed by Imperial Russian authorities and demanded the abolition of boyar privilege. Led by a group of young intellectuals and officers in the Wallachian Militia, the movement succeeded in toppling the ruling Prince Gheorghe Bibescu, whom it replaced with a Provisional Government and a Regency. Its international status was contested by Russia. After managing to rally a degree of sympathy from Ottoman political leaders, the Revolution was ultimately isolated by the intervention of Russian diplomats, and ultimately repressed by a common intervention of Ottoman and Russian armies. Nevertheless, over the following decade, the completion of its goals was made possible by the international context, and former revolutionaries became the original political class in united Romania.

Military flag (1863) of Alexander John Cuza: Prince of Moldavia, Prince of Wallachia, and later Ruler of the Romanian Principalities (1861-1866)

Flag of Carol I of Romania (1867)

Flag of King Carol I of Romania (1877)

Flag of King Ferdinand I of Romania (1921-1927)

See also:

In the 17th century, in a letter to the Sultan of the Ottoman Empire, Stefan Batory, the Prince of Transylvania stated that "The lands between the Bug and Dniester are populated by a mix of races composed of Lithuanian Poles, Muscovites, and Romanians. The Cossacks are raised from the Muscovites and Romanians". While the Ruthenian ethnic element is fundamental for Cossacks, there was also a considerable number of Romanians among the hetmans of the Cossacks [e.g. Ioan Potcoavă; Grigore Lobodă (Hryhoriy Loboda), who ruled in 1593–1596; Ioan Sârcu (Ivan Sirko), who ruled in 1659–1660; Dănilă Apostol (Danylo Apostol), who ruled in 1727–1734; Alexander Potcoavă; Constantin Potcoavă; Petre Lungu; Petre Cazacu; Tihon Baibuza; Samoilă Chişcă; Opară; Trofim Voloşanin; Ion Şărpilă; Timotei Sgură; Dumitru Hunu and other high-ranking Cossacks: Polkovnyks Toader Lobădă and Dumitraşcu Raicea in Pereyaslav-Khmelnytskyy; Martin Puşcariu in Poltava; Burlă in Gdańsk; Pavel Apostol in Mirgorod; Eremie Gânju and Dimitrie Băncescu in Uman; Varlam Buhăţel; Grigore Gămălie in Lubensk; Grigore Cristofor; Ion Ursu; Petru Apostol in Lubensk].

Above, the Coats of Arms of Wallachia, Moldavia & Transylvania.

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