51) Melting Pot Europe

The modern European gene pool was formed when three ancient populations mixed within the last 7,000 years, Nature journal reports.
Blue-eyed, swarthy hunters (European Hunter-Gathers - EHG) mingled with brown-eyed, pale skinned farmers (Early European Farmers - EEF) as the latter swept into Europe from the Near East.
But another, mysterious population with Siberian affinities (Ancient North Eurasians - ANE) also contributed to the genetic landscape of the continent.





Anatomically modern hunter-gathers first migrated into Europe 45Kya from Africa through the Levant (European Hunter-Gathers - EHG) and the haplogroup I is a good candidate to be identified as a Paleolithic/Mesolithic haplogroup.

Y-DNA Haplogroup I
According to a 2014 study (Iosif Lazaridis, Nick Patterson, Alissa Mittnik, etc.) the mesolithic male (8,000 year old) discovered in Loschbour, Luxembourg (having dark hair, dark skin and probably blue eyes) and four Motala men (from seven, discovered in the "Tomb of the Sunken Skulls" - Sweden, 8,000 year old) were tested and they belong to Y-chromosome haplogroup I.
Research published in 2008 found that the earliest mutations in the eye-colour genes that led to the evolution of blue eyes probably occurred about 10,000 years ago in individuals living in around the Black Sea.

Facial reconstructions of Cro-Magnon male (above centre and left), of early Homo sapiens dating from the Upper Paleolithic Period (c. 40,000 to c. 10,000 years ago) in Europe, next to the Loschbour man (to the right, as imagined by three Luxembourg's researchers).

Haplogroup I2 is the haplogroup pertaining to the first anatomically modern humans to inhabit Europe: Cro-Magnon. A recent 2015 study has also found Y-DNA haplogroup I2a in a 13,000 year old Cro-Magnon fossil from Bichon Switzerland, belonging to the Azilian culture (mtDNA haplogroup U5b1h).
Haplogroup I2 is the most common paternal lineage in former Yugoslavia, Romania, Bulgaria and Sardinia, and a major lineage in most Slavic countries. Its maximum frequencies are observed in Bosnia (55%, including 71% in Bosnian Croats), Sardinia (39.5%), Croatia (38%), Serbia (33%), Montenegro (31%), Romania (28%), Moldova (24%), Macedonia (24%), Slovenia (22%), Bulgaria (22%), Belarus (18.5%), Hungary (18%), Slovakia (17.5%), Ukraine (13.5%), and Albania (13.5%). It is found at a frequency of 5 to 10% in Germanic countries.
The people of Cucuteni-Trypillian and Vinča cultures (late Neolithic civilisations from abt. 8,000 to 5,500 years ago, in Eastern Europe) are likely to belong to I2a1 haplogroup, the largest branch of I2.
Y-DNA Haplogroup I-M170 is predominantly an European haplogroup and it is considered as the only native European Haplogroup. It can be found in the majority of present-day European populations with peaks in some Northern and South-Eastern European countries where the total population is small in comparison with European standards. Consequently, the haplogroup represents not more than one-fifth of the population of Europe, being the continent's second major Y-DNA haplogroup behind Haplogroup R.

Y-DNA Haplogroup C
The mesolithic skeleton discovered at the La Braña-Arintero site in León was tested for DNA (Iñigo Olalde 2014 study) and it belongs to Y-DNA haplogroup C6 and to mtDNA haplogroup U5b2c1.
The reconstruction here below - on the left side, shows the deep dark skin and blue eyes of a 7,000 year old hunter from León - northern Spain, next to "The boy with the sapphire eyes" from Zimbabwe (2012 photo by Vanessa Bristow) and an Aboriginal Australian man with blue eyes (2008 photo by Jenni Medland). Y-DNA Haplogroup C is found at high frequency (abt. 19%) among the Australian aborigines.

Y-DNA Haplogroup F
The 2002 discovery of a modern human fossil (with a recent Neanderthal ancestor) in the Peştera cu Oase, southwestern Romania, provides evidence of early modern humans in the lower Danubian Corridor. The analysis shows the man was more closely related to modern East Asians and Native Americans than to today's Europeans. Its Y-chromosome belongs to macrohaplogroup F and the mtDNA to macrohaplogroup N.
"It is evidence of an initial modern human occupation of Europe that didn't give rise to the later population. There may have been a pioneering group of modern humans that got to Europe, but was later replaced by other groups." said prof. David Reich (Harvard Medical School).
Directly accelerator mass spectrometry radiocarbon (C-14) dated the mandible to be 34,000–36,000 year old.





Second major infusion of people comes with expansion of agriculture - also from Levant beginning 8Kya (Early European Farmers - EEF).

Y-DNA Haplogroup G
The Neolithic Era or New Stone Age, was a period in the development of human technology, beginning about 12,000 years ago in some parts of the Middle East, and later in other parts of the world and ending between 6,500 and 4,000 years ago.
Haplogroup G is the founding father of the Neolithic. Haplogroup G represents the spread of farming into Europe. In addition to haplogroup G in the Neolithic, one sample of both E1b1b1 (M35) and C were also found in Spain.
In western Austria, in the Tirol (Tyrol) the G percentage can reach 40% or more (Ötzi also had it). In the northern and highland areas of the island of Sardinia off western Italy, G percentages reach 11% of the population in one study and reached 21% in the town of Tempio in another study. In the Greek island of Crete, approximately 7% to 11% of males belong to haplogroup G. In north-eastern Croatia, in the town of Osijek, G was found in 14% of the males. The city is on the banks of the river Drava, which notably begins in the Tirol/Tyrol region of the Alps, another haplogroup G focus area in Europe. Farther north, 8% of ethnic Hungarian males and 5.1% of ethnic Bohemian (Czech) males have been found to belong to Haplogroup G.

The Iceman on display at the South Tyrol Museum of Archaeology in Bolzano (South Tyrol, Italy) is one of the world’s best-known and most important mummies. A group of scientists have sequenced Ötzi's full genome and the report was published on 28 February 2012. The Y-DNA of Ötzi (a man who lived around 5,300 years ago) belongs to a subclade of G haplogroup. G-L91 is now mostly found in South Corsica.



Ancient North Eurasians (ANE) entered after the Neolithic (earlier than 7Kya). All Europeans today carry some amount of ANE, but ancient burials do not.

Y-DNA Haplogroup R
The Metal ages, which begin about 5,300 years ago in Europe, is where haplogroup R, along with I1, first appear. The I1 branch is estimated to have split away from the rest of haplogroup I some 20,000 years ago, in Europe. It looks like haplogroup I2a1b (M423) may have been replaced by I1 which expanded after the Mesolithic.
Haplogroup R* originated in North Asia just before the Last Glacial Maximum (26,500-19,000 years before present). This haplogroup has been identified in the 24,000 year old remains of the so-called "Mal'ta boy" from the Altai region, in south-central Siberia (Raghavan et al. 2013).

Reconstruction of a typical Yamnaya individual from the Caspian steppe in Russia ca. 5Kya. The re-writing of the genetic map began in the early Bronze Age, about 5,000 years ago. From the steppes in the Caucasus, the Yamnaya Culture migrated principally westward into North and Central Europe, and to a lesser degree, into western Siberia. Yamnaya was characterized by a new system of family and property. In northern Europe the Yamnaya mixed with the Stone Age people who inhabited this region and along the way established the Corded Ware Culture, which genetically speaking resembles present day Europeans living north of the Alps today.

Given that haplogroup R arrived in the early Metalic age, was it weapons and chariots that enabled the R1b men who arrived to quickly become more than half of the population?
Haplogroup R1b, also known as haplogroup R-M343, is the most frequently occurring Y-chromosome haplogroup in Western Europe, as well as some parts of Russia (the Bashkir minority), Central Asia (e.g. Turkmenistan) and Central Africa (e.g. Chad and Cameroon).
In Europe, the R1a1 subclade of R1a, is found at highest levels among peoples of Eastern European descent (Sorbs, Poles, Russians and Ukrainians; 50 to 65%) (Balanovsky 2008, Behar 2003, and Semino 2000). In the Baltic countries R1a1 frequencies decrease from Lithuania (45%) to Estonia (around 30%) (Kasperaviciūte 2005). Levels in Hungarians have been noted between 20 and 60% (Battaglia 2008, Rosser 2000, Semino 2000, and Tambets 2004).
There is a significant presence in peoples of Scandinavian descent, with highest levels in Norway and Iceland, where between 20 and 30% of men are in R1a1 (Bowden 2008 and (Dupuy 2005). Vikings and Normans may have also carried the R1a1 lineage westward; accounting for at least part of the small presence in the British Isles (Passarino 2002 and Capelli 2003). In East Germany, where Haplogroup R1a1 reaches a peak frequency in Rostock at a percentage of 31.3%, it averages between 20%-30% (Kayser 2005).



Sources:
BBC News Science:
Denisova
Haplogroup I-M170
Haplogroup G-M201
Haplogroup R1b
Haplogroups Europe
CNRA Loschbour 3D Animation - Luxembourg
Palaeolithic DNA from Eurasia
Otzi
Tyrol Museum of Archaeology in Bolzano
Ancient genomes reveal mass-migrations during bronze age
7,000-Year-Old Human Bones Suggest New Date for Light-Skin Gene
The Mammoth Ivory Male head from Dolni Vestonice
When modern Eurasia was born
The Civilisation of the Goddess
Ancestral Journeys: the peopling of Europe
A journey back to the roots

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