07) Romania & the genetic history of Europe. Evidences about Romania's ethnic structure

The Y-chromosome DNA haplogroup I is found in the form of various sub-clades throughout Europe and is found at highest frequencies in Serbia 48%, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Croatia, Sweden, Norway, Sardinia, parts of Germany, Romania/Moldova and other countries in the Balkan Peninsula and Scandinavia. This clade is found at its highest expression by far in Europe and may have been there since before the Last Glacial Maximum (Wikipedia: Genetic_history_of_Europe).

Haplogroup I2a1b (M423, L178) was known as I1b until 2007, and I2a2 from 2008 to 2010. It is typical of the Balkans and the Carpathians, with maximum frequencies observed among the Dinaric Slavs (Croats, Serbs and Bosniaks) as well as in Moldavia and Romania.

It is also common to a lower extent in Albania, Northern Greece, Bulgaria, Slovakia, Ukraine, Belarus, and southwestern Russia. The high concentration of I2a1b in north-east Romania, Moldova and central Ukraine reminds of the maximum spread of the Cucuteni-Tripolye culture before it was swallowed by the Indo-European Corded Ware culture (Eupedia: Haplogroup I2; ISOGG).
Napoleon III belonged also to haplogroup I2 (apparently to the M223 subclade): Professor Gérard Lucotte tested the Y-DNA of Napoleon I, Napoleon III (Louis-Napoléon Bonaparte; 1808-1873) and their descendants, and was able to confirm that Napoleon III was not the biological nephew of the first Emperor of the French. While Napoleon I belonged to haplogroup E-M34 (E1b1b1c), Napoleon III, the presumed son of Louis Bonaparte and Hortense de Beauharnais, belonged to haplogroup I2.
The overall estimates for the frequencies of Y-DNA haplogroups among Romanian people runs as follows:
22.2% I or I2; 20.4% R1a; 13% R1b; 7.4% E; 5.6% J; 5.6% G; ~3.2% H.
Here bellow is a short explanation regarding the I, R1, E, J, G, H haplogroups (Wikipedia: Haplogroup):
Haplogroup I (M170, P19, M258) is widespread in Europe, found infrequently in parts of the Middle East, and virtually absent elsewhere:
- Haplogroup I1 (M253, M307, P30, P40) (Northern Europe)
- Haplogroup I2 (S31) (Central and Southeast Europe, Sardinia)
Haplogroup R1 (M173):
- Haplogroup R1a (M17) (Central Asia, South Asia, and Central, Northern, and Eastern Europe). R1a is currently found in Slavic populations of Eastern Europe.
- Haplogroup R1b (M343) (Europe, Caucasus, Central Asia, South Asia, North Africa, Central Africa). R1b is the most common in European populations.
Haplogroup E (M96):
- Today E* is found predominantly in Ethiopia (Eupedia: Haplogroup E1)
- Haplogroup E1b1a (V38) West Africa and surrounding regions
- Haplogroup E1b1b (M215) East Africa, North Africa, the Middle East, the Mediterranean, the Balkans
- E3a is the most common lineage among African Americans
Haplogroup J (M304), found in the Middle East, Turkey, Caucasus, Italy, Greece, the Balkans, North and Northeast Africa:
- Haplogroup J*, mainly found in Socotra, with a few observations in Pakistan, Oman, Greece, Czechia, and among Turkic peoples.
- Haplogroup J1 (M267), mostly associated with Semitic peoples in the Middle East, Ethiopia, and North Africa, Iran, Pakistan, India and with Northeast Caucasian peoples in Dagestan; J1 with DYS388=13 is associated with eastern Anatolia.
- Haplogroup J2 (M172), mainly found in West Asia, Central Asia, Southern Europe and North Africa.
Haplogroup G (M201), present among many ethnic groups in Eurasia, usually at low frequency; most common in the Caucasus, the Iranian plateau, and Anatolia; in Europe mainly in Greece, Italy, Iberia, the Tyrol, Bohemia; extremely rare in Northern Europe. A significant fraction of European G1’s are Ashkenazi Jews.
Haplogroup H (M69) - found in India, Sri Lanka, Nepal, Pakistan, Iran, Central Asia, and Arabia, it is associated with Roma population (Who are the Roma?). According to 2011 census, Roma people numbers 619,007 persons in Romania or 3.2% of the total population but their number and genetic structure may be slightly different. Male DNA haplogroup H is reflected by mt DNA M5.

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Estimates for the frequencies of Y-DNA haplogroups
Origine, répartition, âge et relation ethnique des haplogroupes Européens
A journey back to the roots

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